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Teacher's Guide

Lesson 3—Explore/Explain

Anatomy of a Kick (Page 2 of 2)

Procedure


print-based alternative iconAlternate print version for those classes without access to the Internet:

  1. Ask students to hold their right arms straight out in front of them with the palm facing up. Then ask them to flex that arm— that is, they should bring the extended hand upward toward their heads while bending their elbow.
  2. Ask students to use their left hands to feel what the muscles of their right upper arms are doing.

Students should examine both the biceps and triceps. Some students may not know the names of these muscles. Point out to students that the biceps is on the top (or front) of the upper arm and the triceps is on the bottom (or back) of the upper arm.

  1. Ask students to extend their right arms back to the starting position and continue to feel what the biceps and triceps of their right upper arms are doing.
  2. Ask students to describe what they feel happening to the muscles of their right upper arms.

Students generally can feel the biceps of the right arm shorten (contract) and become less soft and more firm as the arm is flexed. At this point, the triceps is relaxed. As the arm is extended, particularly if it is held straight out or straight down, students can feel the biceps stretch and become relaxed while the triceps becomes more firm (it is difficult to feel the triceps contract).

  1. Ask students the following questions:

Students should recognize that the biceps flexes the arm while the triceps extends it. Some students might believe erroneously that the biceps pulls (contracts) to flex the arm and then pushes to extend it. However, they should have learned from their own muscles that the biceps is very relaxed and the triceps begins to tighten when the arm is extended.

Students should conclude that muscles act by contracting (shortening). Help them realize that muscles work in opposing pairs to produce opposite (for instance, push-pull) movements.

Note to teachers: The major objectives of this lesson are to stress that muscles produce movement when they contract and that they are arranged in opposing pairs. You should not get distracted with details of anatomy. Questions may come up, however, about how muscles attach to bone. You may wish to explain that

Students will probably understand that the biceps and triceps each connect the upper arm to the lower arm. Although the anatomy is more complex than students need to understand, the biceps originates in two places, the collarbone and the upper arm bone (humerus) and then attaches to the radius of the lower arm. The triceps also originates in the collarbone and the humerus and then attaches to the ulna of the lower arm.

Figure 3.4
Figure 3.4. Right arm, palm down.
  1. Explain to students that moving the arm about the elbow is a simple motion involving two muscle groups. Show the transparency of Master 3.1, Muscles, and explain that more complicated movements, such as running, involve more than two muscle groups.

Point out to students that the human body has more than 660 skeletal muscles, which includes 56 total in both legs.

Figure 3.5
Figure 3.5. The six muscle groups.
  1. Explain that they will next investigate the more complicated movements associated with kicking a soccer ball. Ask for one student to come to the front of the room and demonstrate how he or she would kick an imaginary ball lying on the ground.
  1. As the student kicks, ask the class to point out muscles that produce the kicking motion.

Keep this discussion relatively brief. Do not try to discuss all the muscles involved. The next step will address six muscle groups involved in kicking a ball. Guide the discussion so that muscles connecting the hip to the upper leg, the upper leg to the lower leg, and the lower leg to the foot are discussed.

  1. Display a transparency of Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence. Explain that this transparency depicts six muscle groups needed for kicking a ball. The muscle groups are represented as shaded bands attached to the skeleton.

As the movements produced by muscle contractions are discussed, they can be drawn on the transparency as arrows indicating the direction of movement. By noting specific points of attachment of the muscle groups, students can assess the movement that contraction of a muscle group produces about the hip joint, knee, or ankle.

Note to teachers: The kicking motion will vary depending on how individual students kick. See also the annotation for Step 12 below.

National Science Education Standards icon
Content Standard A:
Think critically and logically to make the relationship between evidence and explanations.
  1. Organize students into teams of three. Give each team one copy of Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence.
  1. One member of each team should demonstrate the kicking motion as necessary. Instruct teams to review
  1. After teams observe the kicking motion and review the movements produced by the six muscle groups, they should determine the sequence in which the six muscle groups function to produce the kicking motion. Students should write down their sequences in the table on Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence.

Because students will not necessarily demonstrate the same kicking motion, there is no single, correct sequence in which the six muscle groups will function to produce the kicking motion. For instance, some students may pull their leg back (D) before bending the leg at the knee (C), while others may reverse that order. There also may be variation in the point at which the foot is extended and flexed. It is important only that students present a reasonable sequence of muscle action that demonstrates muscles contracting in an order consistent with the kick investigated by their group.

assessment icon
Assessment:
Collect copies of Master 3.4 to assess students’ understanding.
  1. After teams have determined their sequences, reconvene the class. Ask for volunteers to demonstrate their kicks, report their sequences of muscle contractions, and explain their reasoning. Collect copies of Master 3.4.

Student responses will vary. Bring out in the discussion that muscles attached to bones on both sides of a joint produce movement about the joint. Students should also recognize that by being arranged in opposing pairs, muscles, which can only contract, move bones back and forth.

  1. Ask students, “Why does the body need so many skeletal muscles?”

Answers will vary. Focus student thinking on the many movements the human body is capable of performing. For example, the hand and fingers are capable of a wide variety of different movements.

  1. Explain that students are now going to apply their knowledge of muscle function to an analysis of how muscles move bones in the arms. Display a transparency of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting!

Master 3.3 depicts a human skeleton in three panels. In the first panel, the skeleton has its arms extending straight out from the body. The second panel depicts movement about each elbow and wrist joint. In the third panel, the arms have returned to their original positions. In Panel A, eight muscles are shown. Each muscle attaches on either side of a joint and is identified by a number.

  1. Ask students to compare the positions of the arms among the figures in the three panels. What movements have occurred to change the arm positions from Panel A to Panel B? From Panel B to Panel C?

Students should mention the following:

  1. Give each student one copy of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting. Instruct students to

Give students about five minutes to complete the task. The correct responses are shown in Figure 3.6.

Figure 3.6

Movement from Panel A to Panel B
Muscle Contracting or Relaxing?
1 Relaxing
2 Contracting
3 Contracting
4 Relaxing
5 Contracting
6 Relaxing
7 Contracting
8 Relaxing
Movement from Panel B to Panel C
Muscle Contracting or Relaxing?
1 Contracting
2 Relaxing
3 Relaxing
4 Contracting
5 Relaxing
6 Contracting
7 Relaxing
8 Contracting

Figure 3.6. Muscle movements about joints.

  1. Ask students which muscles were relaxing and which were contracting. Write their responses on the transparency.

If a student makes a mistake, ask the class if they agree. Guide the discussion to bring out the correct muscle movements.

  1. Ask students if they can relate the pattern of relaxing and contracting muscles when they compare the results between the two tables.

Students should notice that as movement goes from Panel A to Panel B, the pattern of muscle contraction is the opposite of that going from Panel B to Panel C. This is because the movement depicted in the panels goes from a starting position to a new position and then back to the original position.

assessment icon
Assessment:
Assign Step 20 as homework, and use it as an assessment of student learning.
  1. Conclude the lesson by asking students to write a sentence or two describing how muscles cause our arms or legs to move. Instruct them to include the ideas of contraction and opposing pairs in their descriptions.

The following is an example of what a student might write: “Opposing pairs of muscles contract to cause movement in opposite directions.”

Web activity icon Lesson 3 Organizer: Web Version
Activity 1: What’s the Health Problem?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Have students hold out their right arms and flex them. They use their left hands to feel the muscles of the right arm.

  • Ask students what the muscles in their arms are doing during the flex action.
Steps 1–4

Ask students,

  • “Which muscle allows you flex your arm?”
  • “Which muscle allows you to extend your arm?”
  • “Why do you need both biceps and triceps to move the lower arm up and down at the elbow?”
Step 5

Explain that moving the arm about the elbow involves two different muscle groups. Display a transparency of Master 3.1, Muscles, and explain that more complicated movements such as running involve more than two muscle groups.

transparency iconStep 6

Explain that students will now investigate how six different muscle groups contribute to the kicking of a soccer ball.

Step 7

Divide the class into teams of three.

  • Give each team a copy of Master 3.2, Anatomy of a Kick Results.
  • Explain that they will use it to record the locations and movements produced by the different muscle groups in the activity.
  • Direct the teams to their computer stations.
master iconStep 8
Web activity icon

Instruct teams to go to the module’s Web site and click on the link to “Lesson 3—Anatomy of a Kick.”

Step 9

Instruct teams to

  • investigate how each of the six muscle groups attaches to the skeleton;
  • observe the movements produced by each muscle group;
  • record their conclusions on Master 3.2, Anatomy of a Kick Results; and
  • view the animations of the figure kicking the ball in the upper left-hand panel.
Steps 10 and 11

After students complete the analysis, instruct them to enter at the bottom of the screen the sequence of muscle group contractions needed to kick the ball.

  • After entering their sequences, they should click on the “Test” button to see if the sequence is correct.
Step 12

Reconvene the class. Ask students,

  • “What did you learn about muscles from the lesson?”
  • “Why does the body need so many skeletal muscles?”
Steps 13–14

Explain that students will now apply their muscle knowledge to movement of the arms. Display a transparency of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting.

transparency iconStep 15

Instruct students to compare the positions of the arms among the figures in the three panels. Ask,

  • “What movements have occurred to change the arm positions from Panel A to Panel B?”
  • “From Panel B to Panel C?”
Step 16

Give each student one copy of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting. Instruct students to

  • consider the movements needed to go from Panel A to Panel B and from Panel B to Panel C and
  • indicate whether each labeled muscle was relaxing or contracting in each case.
master iconStep 17

Ask students which muscles were relaxing and which were contracting. Write their responses on the transparency.

Step 18

Ask students to relate the pattern of muscle contractions when they compare the results in the two tables.

Step 19

Conclude the lesson by asking students to write one or two sentences describing how muscles cause arms or legs to move. They must use “contraction” and “opposing pairs” in their descriptions.

Step 20
transparency icon= Involves making a transparency.
Web activity icon= Involves using the Internet.
master icon= Involves copying a master.

print activity iconLesson 3 Organizer: Print Version
Activity 1: What’s the Health Problem?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Have students hold out their right arms and flex them. They use their left hands to feel the muscles of the right arm.

  • Ask students what the muscles in their arms are doing during the flex action.
Steps 1–4

Ask students,

  • “Which muscle allows you flex your arm?”
  • “Which muscle allows you to extend your arm?”
  • “Why do you need both biceps and triceps to move the lower arm up and down at the elbow?”
Step 5

Explain that moving the arm about the elbow involves two different muscle groups. Display a transparency of Master 3.1, Muscles, and explain that more complicated movements such as running involve more than two muscle groups.

transparency iconStep 6

Explain that students will now investigate the more complicated movements associated with kicking a soccer ball. Ask one student to demonstrate kicking an imaginary all. Ask students to describe the muscles needed to kick the ball.

  • For each muscle, describe where it attaches.
  • Ask, “What happens when it contracts?”
Steps 7 and 8

Display a transparency of Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence. Explain that it depicts six muscle groups needed to kick a ball.

  • Point out where each muscle group attaches to the skeleton.
  • For each muscle group, ask, “What will happen when this muscle contracts?”
transparency iconStep 9

Divide the class into teams of three. Give each team one copy of Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence.

master iconStep 10

Instruct a member of each team to demonstrate the kicking motion. Ask teams to review

  • how each of muscle group attaches to the skeleton and
  • the movements produced by each muscle group.
Step 11

After students complete the analysis, instruct them to enter the sequence of muscle group contractions needed to kick the ball on Master 3.4, Muscle Group Sequence.

Step 12

Reconvene the class. Ask for volunteers to

  • demonstrate their kicks,
  • report their sequences of muscle contractions, and
  • explain their reasoning.
Step 13

Ask students, “Why does the body need so many skeletal muscles?” Explain that they will now apply their muscle knowledge to movement of the arms. Display a transparency of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting.

transparency iconSteps 14 and 15

Ask students to compare the positions of the arms among the figures in the three panels. Ask,

  • “What movements have occurred to change the arm positions from Panel A to Panel B?”
  • “From Panel B to Panel C?”
Step 16

Give each student one copy of Master 3.3, Relax! I’m Contracting. Instruct students to

  • consider the movements needed to go from Panel A to Panel B and from Panel B to Panel C and
  • indicate whether each labeled muscle was relaxing or contracting in each case.
master iconStep 17

Ask students which muscles were relaxing and which were contracting. Write their responses on the transparency.

Step 18

Ask students to relate the pattern of muscle contractions when they compare the results in the two tables.

Step 19

Conclude the lesson by asking students to write one or two sentences describing how muscles cause arms or legs to move. They must use “contraction” and “opposing pairs” in their descriptions.

Step 20
transparency icon= Involves making a transparency.
master icon= Involves copying a master.

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