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Teacher’s Guide

Lesson 4—Explain/Elaborate

Drug Abuse and Addiction (Page 2 of 2)

Procedure

Activity 3: When Does Abuse Become Addiction?

National Science Education Standards icon
Content Standard F:
Personal choice concerning fitness and health involves multiple factors.

Note: The power of this activity lies in the discussion it elicits. Without the discussion, the activity could allow misconceptions to persist. If you don’t have enough class time for discussion, please skip this activity.

  1. Divide the class into groups of three students. Give each group a deck of cards that have been divided into two piles. Tell the students that the small pile contains the face cards and the larger pile has the aces and number cards.
  2. Display a transparency of Master 4.4, Playing the Game, showing the instructions for the game. Have students play through the game. Each student in the group will play individually, but the group members share the deck of cards.
playing cards
Figure 4.4: The arrangement of cards during the game.
  1. When all the groups have finished the game, discuss the game and the results of the game with them. The value of this activity lies in the discussion and questions that it may generate. The following sample questions can guide the discussion.
  • How many choice cards did each person pick?

Students will draw different numbers of cards before they decide to stop.

  • How many people equaled or went over the value of the switch card?

Some students will decide to play it safe, whereas other students will risk going over the transition, or switch, value.

  • How does this game relate to drug abuse and drug addiction?

This game relates to abuse and addiction in that each person who continues to abuse drugs will reach some point that, if surpassed, will change the person (and the person’s brain) from abusing drugs to being addicted to them. Each person has risk factors, and each person can make choices about abusing drugs.

  • What does the transition, or switch, card mean in regard to drug addiction?

Drug abuse causes changes in the brain that lead to the compulsive use of drugs despite negative consequences. Scientists do not know what factors control the transition from drug abuse to addiction.

  • Is everyone’s transition, or switch, level the same?

In the card game, students choose one of three cards, each assigned an arbitrary value, as their switch card. In life, a person does not know when he or she will reach the point where drug abuse becomes drug addiction. For some people, that change will occur earlier in their drug abuse, while other people will abuse drugs extensively before they become addicted.

  • What does the risk card mean?

The risk card symbolizes that there are factors that influence the outcome. An individual does not know what all the risks are or how great their influence is.

  • Is everyone’s risk card the same?

Different students will have different risk cards. In life, people who abuse drugs have different risks of becoming addicted.

  • Why is the risk card face down?

The risk card is face down because a person often does not know the magnitude of the risk factors that he or she carries. For example, a person may know that genes play a role in determining whether a person will become addicted, but a person doesn’t know whether he or she carries the genes that will place them at risk for addiction or to what degree the gene’s influence increases the risk.

  • What factors influence a person’s risk of becoming addicted to drugs?

Many factors influence whether a person becomes addicted to drugs. Some of these include genetics, family influence, influence of friends, age at which drug abuse begins (a person who begins using drugs early in life is more likely to become addicted), context of drug use, and the development of coping skills.

  • What do the choice cards represent?

Each choice card in this model represents an episode of drug use.

Students likely will try to assign meaning to the numbers on the choice cards. For example, they may equate a 2 with drinking a low-alcohol beer and a 10 with heroin injection. These correlations are difficult to make with any accuracy. For example, a person may smoke a small amount of marijuana believing that it contains a low dose of THC. If that marijuana is of a potent strain that contains a high level of THC, the individual could receive a higher dose than if he or she smoked a larger dose of a less potent strain of marijuana.

Like most models, this one has imperfections. The discussion that this issue may generate among students can be valuable because it causes them to question drug abuse.

  • If a total score that equals or goes over the switch value indicates addiction, did anyone become addicted to drugs with the first drug use?

The point values in the game have been assigned so that the player cannot reach the switch value after drawing one choice card. This correlates with addiction; becoming addicted with one episode of drug abuse rarely happens.

Important note: This is true with the outcome of the game being drug addiction if the switch value is reached. This is not true if the designated outcome is death if the switch value is reached. A person can die from the first episode of drug abuse. After one use, drugs do not change the brain sufficiently to cause addiction. However, drugs can affect other body systems and cause them to fail. See Step 9 for a modification of the game to address this. Also, although a person does not become addicted to drugs after one use, one episode can cause some changes to start occurring in the brain. For example, one use of crack cocaine can cause a person to experience cravings for the drug.

playing cards
Figure 4.5: Sample card hand #1. The player had a moderate switch value (the switch card is a queen). The student elected to draw six choice cards totaling 33 points before finding out that the risk card had a value of 5. The 38-point total put the score over the switch value (35), signifying addiction.

playing cards
Figure 4.6: Sample card hand #2. The player had a higher switch card (king = 45 points) and elected to draw eight choice cards totaling 36 points. Because the risk card was low (a 2), the 38-point total was still below the switch value, signifying drug abuse.
playing cards
Figure 4.7: Sample card hand #3. The player elected to draw only one choice card, a 5, to ensure that the total of risk (which turned out to be a 4) and choice cards remained below the switch value of 25 points (jack = 25 points).
   
playing cards
Figure 4.8: Sample card hand #4. The player drew a low switch card (a jack = 25 points) and a high risk card (a 10). Because the choice cards have high point values, the total of just two cards totaled more than the switch value, signifying drug addiction.

  1. Have the students play the game again now that they can relate it to the issues of drug abuse and drug addiction.
  2. Ask students if they played the game any differently this time. Did they make different choices?

Some students will continue to risk drawing more choice cards and get closer to the switch value. Other students may elect not to draw any choice cards.

Some students might bring up questions relating to a hand containing a high switch card, a low risk card, and some low choice cards so that they can continue to draw more cards. Students may feel that this scenario would lead them to continue to experiment with drugs. You can respond by asking them what choices they would make if they drew a low switch card and a high risk card. (Perhaps the numbers on the cards are lower or higher than the assigned values. For example, what if the switch card had a value of 22 points and the risk card had a value of 12 points? Would this change the decision about drawing additional cards?) This scenario leads into the next step of the activity, in which students consider that the switch point really is unknown.

  1. Discuss the idea of the switch card with students. Does anyone really know at what point in drug abuse the brain changes and the person shifts from abusing to being addicted to a drug? How could you modify the card game to account for this?

In life, a person does not know when he or she will reach the point at which drug abuse becomes drug addiction. To reflect this in the card game, students can play the game leaving the switch card face down.

  1. When the students play the game this time, they will not look at the switch card. Have them keep the switch card face down and continue the game as before.
  2. Continue the discussion of the game and its relation to drug abuse and drug addiction.

The main points that students should learn through this activity are

  1. (Optional) A person does not become addicted to drugs after one episode of abuse, but a person can die as a result of one episode of drug abuse. The drugs can act on the brain or other body systems with a lethal outcome, such as by suppressing respiration. If you want to modify the game to add this scenario, insert the jokers into each pile of choice cards and have the students play the game a fourth time. If a student draws a joker, the game is over for that student.

If you decide to do this optional modification to the game, make sure that students understand that the joker does not indicate addiction. The joker would, perhaps, represent a batch of drugs that contain a lethal contaminant that would cause some body organ to fail and, thus, cause the person using them to die. Another person, for example, takes a large enough dose of opioids to completely inhibit the neurons in the brain that control respiration; those neurons no longer stimulate the lungs to contract, causing death. Sometimes a drug can produce a fatal response for unknown reasons; it could be due to a mutation in a gene that reduces the body’s ability to metabolize a drug, leading to an increased, possibly toxic, level of the drug in the body.

Activity 4: Environmental, Behavioral, and Social Influences on Drug Abuse and Addiction

National Science Education Standards icon
Content Standard C:
An individual’s mood and behavior may be modified by substances.

Content Standard F:
Personal choice concerning fitness and health involves multiple factors.

Note to teachers: This activity, as described in the following steps, is designed as a class discussion. An alternative approach is to have individual students write their answers to the questions and then discuss the questions as a class.

  1. Display a transparency of Master 4.5, Who Is Addicted?, showing only the top section (to the first horizontal line). Ask students to answer the question.

Students may respond differently to the question about who is addicted to morphine. At this stage, any answer is acceptable if the student can explain the reasoning underlying his or her answer. Some students will say that Chris is addicted because of the higher dose of morphine being taken over a longer period of time. Some students will say Pat because this could be a larger dose than what Chris is taking (if Chris is at 50 mg per day). Students could also believe that both individuals are addicted because of their continued drug abuse. Conversely, students could respond that possibly neither one is addicted and more information is needed before a judgment could be made.

  1. Reveal the next section on Master 4.5 (to the next horizontal line). Again have students answer the question and discuss the responses.

Students may respond in a variety of ways. Answers could involve aspects of genetics, dose, or even random chance.

  1. Reveal the remaining section of Master 4.5 and have students read the case studies.
  2. Discuss the cases with the class. Use the following questions to guide the discussion.
  • Why did these two individuals begin taking morphine and then continue to take morphine?

Pat began abusing morphine basically for social reasons. Chris began taking morphine for medical reasons.

  • What are the differences in how Chris and Pat take morphine?

Pat takes an injection of morphine one time each day. Chris also receives morphine through injection, but he receives a dose many times each day.

  • How may these differences have influenced whether addiction develops?

Although Chris receives a higher total dose of morphine during a day, each single injection is a smaller dose. The smaller single dose does not lead to the same high that results from a larger dose. Perhaps the fact that Chris does not feel the euphoria when he receives the morphine is important in keeping him from being addicted. (It is acceptable for students to propose answers here even if they cannot be sure.)

  • Is a larger dose of a drug the only factor to consider when thinking about the causes of drug addiction? Explain your answer based on the case studies.

No, because Chris took a larger dose and did not become addicted.

  • Is the length of time that someone has been taking drugs enough to determine whether addiction will develop? Explain your answer based on the case studies.

No, because Chris took morphine for a longer period of time and did not become addicted while Pat took morphine for a shorter period of time and did become addicted.

  • What factors other than the amount (dose) of the drug taken and the period of time for which the drug is taken may contribute to addiction?

The expectation of feeling a rush may be a factor. A person getting morphine in a hospital would not be taking morphine to get that feeling. The context of drug (medication) use influences whether a person becomes addicted. Pat’s use of drugs to escape problems contributed to the development of drug addiction.

The cases should reveal to the students that a high dose of a drug is not enough to cause addiction. The behaviors and motivations for taking drugs are important factors in the development of addiction. The addicted street person was using drugs with the expectation of a rush, or high, and trying to escape life. The patient was taking drugs without the expectation of a high. The patient experiencing pain uses drugs in order to function normally. Scientists do not completely understand why pain patients do not become addicted after drug use, but the statistics clearly show that these individuals are at very low risk of becoming addicted.

You may also want to discuss the case of Vietnam veterans with students. For many years, the media portrayed Vietnam veterans as hopelessly drug-addicted individuals. Although drug addiction was a problem for some veterans while in Vietnam, the vast majority of those veterans have had no problems with drug addiction since returning to the United States. They may have started using drugs (and subsequently became addicted) to relieve the stress of combat, to rebel against society, or even to relieve boredom, but once they were back in a “normal” environment, they were able to function without drugs.

Activity 5: Long-Term Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction

Web activity icon

For classes using the Web version of this activity.

National Science Education Standards icon
Content Standard A:
Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data.

Having students view the minidocumentary on the long-term effects of drugs on the brain is the strongly preferred approach for this activity. If the Internet is not available, follow the procedure for the alternate version of the activity.

  1. Have students view the minidocumentary, Long-Term Effects of Drugs on the Brain, online.

To view the minidocumentary, which takes about five minutes, go to the Web site. From the activities menu, select Lesson 4—Drug Abuse and Addiction.

Assessment icon
Assessment:
Having students write their answers to the questions encourages them to organize their thoughts and reflect on what they have learned. Listening to students explain their view about drug addiction as a disease will help you evaluate their understanding.
  1. After viewing the minidocumentary, ask students to write brief answers to the following questions.
  • What was the most surprising thing you learned about the effect of drugs?
  • What makes this fact surprising to you?
  • On the basis of what you have learned through the rat experiment analysis, the card game, and the minidocumentary, would you say that drug addiction is a disease? Justify your answer.

Students should be encouraged to relate what they learned in Activities 1 through 4 to what they learned from the minidocumentary.

  1. After students have completed their answers to the questions, discuss the questions as a class.

Drug addiction is a disease that causes physical and functional changes in the brain. This is similar to other diseases in which a part of the body does not function properly.

  1. Encourage students to learn about how drugs affect other body systems by doing library or Internet searches.

Because the focus of this unit is the brain, the curriculum supplement does not address how drugs act on other parts of the body. However, a great deal of additional information is available online. See the section Additional Resources for Teachers for some informative Web sites.

print activity iconThe following procedure is for classes using the print version of the activity.

  1. Give each student a copy of Master 4.6. Instruct students to read the handout Long-Term Effects of Drugs on the Brain and answer the questions.

After students finish reading and answering the questions, discuss the responses as a class.

Sample Answers to Questions on Master 4.6

Question 1. What are some of the ways that drugs cause long-term changes in the brain?

The continued use of drugs may cause the brain to become resistant to the effects of the drug (tolerance). Some drugs, such as alcohol, methamphetamine, and MDMA, are neurotoxic; that is, they can damage or kill brain cells. Cocaine and amphetamine can cause the activity level of the brain to decrease for a long period of time after drug use is stopped.

Question 2. How does the brain adapt to the presence of drugs?

The brain adapts to the presence of drugs through various alterations in cellular, molecular, and genetic processes that affect its function. The decrease in the number of dopamine receptors in the reward areas is one example of a brain adaptation. Changes in the brain can lead to the development of tolerance—a person needing more of a drug to achieve the desired effect—and to cravings for the drug when drug use has stopped.

Question 3. How may the abuse of drugs relate to the plasticity of the brain?

Plasticity means that the brain can modify connections (synapses) in response to experiences. Drugs that damage or kill neurons can decrease the plasticity of the brain because neurons are not present to form new connections and because existing connections are lost. Drugs also hijack the learning and memory systems of the brain so that cues (people, places, or things) that are associated with the drug experience become powerful motivators of craving and drug use. In fact, addiction is sometimes described as a disease of learning and memory.

Question 4. What are some problems that scientists have when they investigate the effects of drugs on the brain?

Scientists have difficulty investigating the effects of drugs on the brain because many people who abuse drugs abuse more than one drug. Scientists must understand how each drug affects the brain and body because drugs taken in combination may have different effects. Also, many people who abuse drugs have other medical conditions that make it difficult for scientists to determine what effects are due to the drug and what effects are due to those conditions. Scientists also don’t know what someone’s brain was like before they used drugs. This makes it hard to determine whether drug use caused the changes or a vulnerability existed before drugs were used that made someone susceptible to addiction.

  1. If students want to learn more about how drugs affect other parts of the body, encourage them to do library or Internet searches for additional information.

Because this unit focuses on the brain, it does not address how drugs act on other parts of the body. A great deal of information is available online. See the section Additional Resources for Teachers for some informative Web sites.


Web activity icon Lesson 4 Organizer: Web Version
Activity 1: How Does Drug Abuse Begin?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Ask the class, “What is a drug?” Write responses on the board or a transparency. Allow differing views to be discussed.

Step 1

Write the following definitions for drug and medication on the board or transparency. Inform students that, for this discussion, you will use the terms according to these definitions.

  • A medication is a drug that is used to treat an illness or disease according to established medical guidelines.
  • A drug is a chemical compound or substance that can alter the structure and function of the body. Psychoactive drugs affect the function of the brain, and some of these may be illegal to use and possess.
Step 2

Ask students to list examples of both medications and drugs.

Step 3

Continue the class discussion by asking, “Why do people start abusing drugs?” Accept reasonable answers.

Step 4
Activity 2: Drug Abuse Is Voluntary; Addiction Is Compulsive
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Organize students into groups of four. Explain how the rats in the experiment were in cages that had two levers. Depending on which lever the rat pressed, it receives a food reward or either an injection or electrical stimulus.

Step 1

Give each student a copy of Masters 4.1 and 4.2. Instruct groups to choose one rat’s data to graph.

master iconStep 2

Give each student a copy of Master 4.3. Ask groups to compare the graphs and discuss the similarities and differences among the rats’ responses. Instruct students to answer the questions on Master 4.3.

master iconStep 3

Have a class discussion about the questions.

Step 4

Ask students to consider the question, Why do humans continue to abuse drugs?

Step 5

Write the definition of addiction on the board or overhead transparency.

  • Addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite adverse health, social, or legal consequences.
Step 6

Ask students to consider whether Rat A (continued cocaine use) and Rat C (continued stimulation of reward pathway) experienced any adverse effects. What adverse effects do drug-addicted humans experience?

Step 7

Prompt students to consider the distinction between abuse and addiction in humans by asking the following questions.

  • When does abuse become addiction?
  • What causes abuse to become addiction?
  • Does the change from abuse to addiction occur at the same level (amount of drug taken, duration of drug abuse) of drug abuse for different individuals?
Step 8
Activity 3: When Does Abuse Become Addiction?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Divide the class into groups of three students. Give each group a deck of cards that have been divided into two piles. Tell the students that the small pile contains the face cards and the larger pile has the aces and number cards.

Step 1

Display a transparency of Master 4.4. Have students play through the game. Each student should play individually, but the group members will share the deck of cards.

transparency iconStep 2

As a class, discuss the game and the results. Guide the discussion with the following questions.

  • How many choice cards did each person pick?
  • How many people equaled or went over the value of the switch card?
  • How does this game relate to drug abuse and drug addiction?
  • What does the transition, or switch, card mean in regard to drug addiction?
  • Is everyone’s transition, or switch, level the same?
  • What does the risk card mean?
  • Is everyone’s risk card the same?
  • Why is the risk card face down?
  • What factors influence a person’s risk of becoming addicted to drugs?
  • What do the choice cards represent?
  • If a total score that equals or goes over the switch value indicates addiction, did anyone become addicted to drugs with the first drug use?
Step 3

Have students play the game again now that they can relate it to the issues of drug abuse and drug addiction.

Step 4

Ask students if they played the game any differently this time. Did they make different choices?

Step 5

Discuss the idea of the switch card. Does anyone really know at what point in drug abuse the brain changes and the person who is abusing drugs the abuser becomes an addict? How could you modify the card game to account for this?

Step 6

Have the students play the game again, but leave the switch card face down this time.

Step 7

Continue the discussion of the game and its relationship to drug abuse and addiction. Ask students to summarize the main points that the game conveys:

  • Drug abuse involves choice.
  • The point at which a person’s brain is changed and drug abuse becomes addiction is different and unknown for each individual.
  • Everyone has risk factors.
  • A person does not become addicted to drugs after one episode of abuse.
Step 8

To model the fact that one episode of drug abuse can result in lethal consequences (which is different from addiction), insert the jokers into the pile of choice cards. Have the students play the game again. If a student draws a joker, the game is over for that student.

Step 9 (optional)
Activity 4: Environmental, Behavioral, and Social Influences on Drug Abuse and Addiction
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Display the top section of a transparency of Master 4.5. Ask students to answer the question.

transparency iconStep 1

Reveal the next section of Master 4.5. Again have students answer the question and discuss the responses.

Step 2

Reveal the remaining section of Master 4.5 and have students read the case studies.

Step 3

Discuss the cases with the class using the following questions to guide the discussion.

  • Why did these two individuals begin taking morphine and then continue to take morphine?
  • What are the differences in how Chris and Pat take morphine?
  • How may these differences have influenced whether addiction develops?
  • Is a larger dose of a drug the only factor to consider when thinking about the causes of drug addiction?
  • Is the length of time that someone has been taking drugs enough to determine if addiction will develop?
  • What factors other than the amount (dose) of the drug taken and the period of time for which the drug is taken may contribute to addiction?
Step 4
Activity 5: Long-Term Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Ask the students to watch the minidocumentary online. From the activities menu, select Lesson 4—Drug Abuse and Addiction.

Web activity iconStep 1

Ask students to write answers to the following questions before discussing the questions as a class.

  • What was the most surprising thing you learned about the effects of drugs?
  • What makes this fact surprising to you?
  • On the basis of what you have learned through analyzing the rat experiment, the card game, and the minidocumentary, would you say that addiction is a disease?
Steps 2–3

Encourage students to learn about how drugs affect other body systems by doing library or Internet searches.

Step 4
Web activity icon= Involves using the Internet.
master icon= Involves copying a master.
transparency icon= Involves making a transparency.

print activity icon Lesson 4 Organizer: Print Version
Activity 1: How Does Drug Abuse Begin?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Ask the class, “What is a drug?” Write responses on the board or a transparency. Allow differing views to be discussed.

Step 1

Write the following definitions for drug and medication on the board or transparency. Inform students that, for this discussion, you will use the terms according to these definitions.

  • A medication is a drug that is used to treat an illness or disease according to established medical guidelines.
  • A drug is a chemical compound or substance that can alter the structure and function of the body. Psychoactive drugs affect the function of the brain, and some of these may be illegal to use and possess.
Step 2

Ask students to list examples of both medications and drugs.

Step 3

Continue the class discussion by asking, “Why do people start abusing drugs?” Accept reasonable answers.

Step 4
Activity 2: Drug Abuse Is Voluntary; Addiction Is Compulsive
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Organize students into groups of four. Explain how the rats in the experiment were in cages that had two levers. Depending on which lever the rat pressed, it receives a food reward or either an injection or electrical stimulus.

Step 1

Give each student a copy of Masters 4.1 and 4.2. Instruct groups to choose one rat’s data to graph.

master iconStep 2

Give each student a copy of Master 4.3. Ask groups to compare the graphs and discuss the similarities and differences among the rats’ responses. Instruct students to answer the questions on Master 4.3.

master iconStep 3

Have a class discussion about the questions.

Step 4

Ask students to consider the question, Why do humans continue to abuse drugs?

Step 5

Write the definition of addiction on the board or overhead transparency.

  • Addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug-taking despite adverse health, social, or legal consequences.
Step 6

Ask students to consider whether Rat A (continued cocaine use) and Rat C (continued stimulation of reward pathway) experienced any adverse effects. What adverse effects do human drug addicts experience?

Step 7

Prompt students to consider the distinction between abuse and addiction in humans by asking the following questions.

  • When does abuse become addiction?
  • What causes abuse to become addiction?
  • Does the change from abuse to addiction occur at the same level (amount of drug taken, duration of drug abuse) of drug abuse for different individuals?
Step 8
Activity 3: When Does Abuse Become Addiction?
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Divide the class into groups of three students. Give each group a deck of cards that have been divided into two piles. Tell the students that the small pile contains the face cards and the larger pile has the aces and number cards.

Step 1

Display a transparency of Master 4.4. Have students play through the game. Each student should play individually, but the group members will share the deck of cards.

transparency iconStep 2

As a class, discuss the game and the results. Guide the discussion with the following questions.

  • How many choice cards did each person pick?
  • How many people equaled or went over the value of the switch card?
  • How does this game relate to drug abuse and drug addiction?
  • What does the transition, or switch, card mean in regard to drug addiction?
  • Is everyone’s transition, or switch, level the same?
  • What does the risk card mean?
  • Is everyone’s risk card the same?
  • Why is the risk card face down?
  • What factors influence a person’s risk of becoming addicted to drugs?
  • What do the choice cards represent?
  • If a total score that equals or goes over the switch value indicates addiction, did anyone become addicted to drugs with the first drug use?
Step 3

Have students play the game again now that they can relate it to the issues of drug abuse and drug addiction.

Step 4

Ask students if they played the game any differently this time. Did they make different choices?

Step 5

Discuss the idea of the switch card. Does anyone really know at what point in drug abuse the brain changes and the abuser becomes an addict? How could you modify the card game to account for this?

Step 6

Have the students play the game again, but leave the switch card face down this time.

Step 7

Continue the discussion of the game and its relationship to drug abuse and addiction. Ask students to summarize the main points that the game conveys:

  • Drug abuse involves choice.
  • The point at which a person’s brain is changed and drug abuse becomes addiction is different and unknown for each individual.
  • Everyone has risk factors.
  • A person does not become addicted to drugs after one episode of abuse.
Step 8

To model the fact that one episode of drug abuse can result in lethal consequences (which is different from addiction), insert the jokers into the pile of choice cards. Have the students play the game again. If a student draws a joker, the game is over for that student.

Step 9 (optional)
Activity 4: Environmental, Behavioral, and Social Influences on Drug Abuse and Addiction
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Display the top section of a transparency of Master 4.5. Ask students to answer the question.

transparency iconStep 1

Reveal the next section of Master 4.5. Again have students answer the question and discuss the responses.

Step 2

Reveal the remaining section of Master 4.5 and have students read the case studies.

Step 3

Discuss the cases with the class using the following questions to guide the discussion.

  • Why did these two individuals begin taking morphine and then continue to take morphine?
  • What are the differences in how Chris and Pat take morphine?
  • How may these differences have influenced whether addiction develops?
  • Is a larger dose of a drug the only factor to consider when thinking about the causes of drug addiction?
  • Is the length of time that someone has been taking drugs enough to determine if addiction will develop?
  • What factors other than the amount (dose) of the drug taken and the period of time for which the drug is taken may contribute to addiction?
Step 4
Activity 5: Long-Term Effects of Drug Abuse and Addiction
What the Teacher Does Procedure Reference

Give each student a copy of Master 4.6. Allow time for students to read the information and answer the questions. Discuss the questions as a class.

master iconStep 1

Encourage students to learn about how drugs affect other body systems by doing library or Internet searches.

Step 2
master icon= Involves copying a master.
transparency icon= Involves making a transparency.

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