Emerging & Re-emerging Infectiious Diseases
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Implementing the Module (continued)

Figure 13 - The key components of the 5E model.
Phase 1 What the Teacher Does That Is
Consistent with the 5E Model Inconsistent with the 5E Model
Engage Creates interest
Generates curiosity
Raises questions
Elicits responses that uncover what students know or think about the concept/subject
Explains concepts
Provides definitions and answers
States conclusions
Provides premature answers to students' questions
Explore Encourages students to work together without direct instruction from teacher
Observes and listens to students as they interact
Asks probing questions to redirect students' investigations when necessary
Provides time for students to puzzle through problems
Acts as a consultant for students
Provides answers
Tells or explains how to work through the problem
Tells students they are wrong
Gives information or facts that solve the problem
Leads students step-by-step to a solution
Explain Encourages students to explain concepts and definitions in their own words
Asks for justification (evidence) and clarification from students
Formally provides definitions, explanations, and new labels
Uses students' previous experiences as the basis for explaining concepts
Accepts explanations that have no justification
Neglects to solicit students' explanations
Introduces unrelated concepts or skills
Elaborate Expects students to use formal labels, definitions, and explanations provided previously
Encourages students to apply or extend concepts and skills in new situations
Reminds students of alternative explanations
Refers students to existing data and evidence and asks "What do you already know?" "Why do you think . . . ?"
Provides definitive answers
Tells students they are wrong
Lectures Leads students step-by-step to a solution
Explains how to work through the problem
Evaluate Observes students as they apply new concepts and skills
Assesses students' knowledge and/or skills
Looks for evidence that students have changed their thinking or behaviors
Allows students to assess their own learning and group-process skills
Asks open-ended questions, such as, "Why do you think . . . ?" "What evidence do you have?" "What do you know about x?" "How would you explain x?"
Tests vocabulary words, terms, and isolated facts
Introduces new ideas or concepts
Creates ambiguity
Promotes open-ended discussion unrelated to concept or skill

The following paragraphs illustrate how the 5Es are implemented across the activities in this module. They also provide some suggestions about teaching behaviors that help students experience each phase of the learning cycle.

Activity 1, Deadly Disease Among Us, serves as the Engage phase of instruction for the students. This phase of the model initiates the learning sequence and introduces the major topic to be studied. Its primary purpose is to capture the students' attention and interest. The activity is designed to make connections between past and present learning experiences and to anticipate upcoming activities. By completing it, students should become mentally engaged in the topic of infectious diseases and should begin to think about how the topic relates to their previous experiences. Successful engagement results in students who are intrigued by the concepts they are about to study in depth.

Activities 2, 3, and 4, Disease Detectives, Superbugs: An Evolving Concern, and Protecting the Herd, serve in a broad sense as the Explore and Explain phases of the model. Activity 2 helps students discover that ecological changes are a major factor in the emergence of new diseases worldwide. Likewise, Activities 3 and 4 help students understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the failure of immunization procedures as explanations for the re-emergence of diseases once thought conquered, or largely so. Explore and Explain activities give students opportunities to develop their own understandings of important concepts and then to articulate their developing understanding to one another and to the teacher. These activities are also where the teacher introduces formal labels for concepts and phenomena. Keep in mind, however, that these activities are still student-centered. That is, the students are developing their own explanations for the emergence and re-emergence of infectious disease. Here, the teacher's role is to guide students so that they have ample opportunity to develop their understanding. Students ultimately should be able to explain their understanding by bringing together their experiences, prior knowledge, and vocabulary.

During the Elaborate and Evaluate phases of the model, exemplified in this module by Activity 5, Making Hard Decisions, students are challenged to extend and assess their understanding of infectious diseases. Through a new set of questions and experiences, students develop a deeper, broader understanding of the topic, obtain more information about areas of interest, and refine their scientific and critical-thinking skills.

A teacher's primary goal in the opening Elaborate phase of this activity is to help students articulate generalizations and extensions of concepts and understandings that are relevant to their lives. The final portion of the activity, where students present arguments for the proposals they have decided to recommend for funding, acts as the Evaluate portion of the program. At this point, students see they can extend and apply their understanding of infectious disease to the real world. It also is important here that they receive feedback on the adequacy of their explanations and understandings. Elaborate and Evaluate activities are complex and challenging, and Activity 5 will stretch your students' abilities to listen, think, and speak.

Using the Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Web site in the Classroom

The Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Web site is a tool, like an overhead projector or a textbook, that you can use to help organize your use of the module, engage student interest in learning, and help orchestrate and individualize instruction. The Web site contains the following major resources:

The Web site runs on Apple Macintosh and IBM-compatible personal computers.

The recommended requirements for a Macintosh computer are the following:

The recommended requirements for IBM-compatible computers are the following:

The ideal use of the Web site requires one computer for each student team. However, if you have only one computer with Internet connectivity available, you can still use the Web site (for example, by using a suitable display device to show animations or videos to the whole class or by rotating teams through a computer station to access Internet-based resources).

If you do not have the facilities for using the Internet in your classroom, a print-based alternative for each activity that requires the Internet is available for printing from the Web site. To use this version, you will need to print out the activity lesson plan and its associated masters.

Before you use this Web site or any other piece of instructional software in your classroom, it may be valuable to identify some of the benefits you expect the software to provide. For example, Roblyer (1997) suggests four major ways that instructional multimedia software can benefit students and teachers. First, well-designed multimedia software can help motivate students, help them enjoy learning, and help them want to learn more. Multimedia programs offer users a rich, interesting, and compelling environment in which to explore and learn, and it rewards users with a broader and more complex set of sensory experiences than print-based resources can provide. Well-designed multimedia resources can enliven content that students otherwise perceive as dull and uninteresting. The video clips provided on the Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases Web site offer students this benefit. Because they often provide nonlinear access to a rich array of information and stimulation, multimedia programs also can encourage reluctant students to immerse themselves in a topic, creating, in effect, a positive feedback loop in which students learn as they "go their own way," wherever their interest or curiosity takes them.

Second, well-designed multimedia software also offers unique instructional capabilities. For example, such software can stimulate students to explore topics in greater depth and in more different dimensions than students often are willing or able to pursue. The reference databases that support Activity 5 have this effect. This benefit is related to the first, but it deepens and intensifies learning rather than stimulates students to investigate content they otherwise would not investigate. Part of this benefit derives from the power such software has to provide essentially immediate access to a wealth of ever more detailed and complex information on a topic, all presented in interesting and unusual ways. Part of the benefit, however, derives from the software's very design: A well-designed user interface provides an easy-to-use navigation system, stimulates curiosity, and encourages exploration of related areas.

Completing activities using instructional software can help students learn to organize and be responsible for their own learning rather than depend entirely on the teacher for direction and support. This goal is commonly cited by teachers and employers, most of whom explicitly desire students and employees who are self-directed and can structure and execute work independently.

Multimedia software can offer students learning experiences that are closer to actual field experiences than the experiences print-based resources offer. The video that supports Activity 3 allows students to listen to a high school student describe an actual disease situation that occurred in her life. Although the students' experience of the situation is vicarious, it is more realistic and memorable than the comparatively static and unchanging experience that a script of this story would offer. Because it engages more senses than simply sight, and because it requires more skills than simply understanding what one reads, well-designed instructional software also addresses many different learning styles and serves the needs of a wider population of students than most print-based resources.

Third, multimedia software can provide teachers with support for experimenting with new instructional approaches. The educational system in the United States is struggling to improve its ability to prepare students for the complex, collaborative, technology-rich workplace they will enter when they leave school. Technology can make possible new approaches to teaching. The simulation provided in support of Activity 4 illustrates this benefit.

By moving the responsibility for organizing learning from the teacher to the student, this simulation can help teachers move into the role of observer and facilitator of learning rather than dispenser of information. As students work independently or in small teams, teachers can circulate throughout the room, listening to students interact with one another, asking and answering questions, and challenging students to consider alternative lines of research and analysis. These behaviors are very different from the typical ones teachers are engaged in when they carry the primary responsibility for delivering and explaining content.

Instructional software can also be an effective tool for helping teachers organize discussions of controversial issues in the classroom. In Activity 5, using videos to present competing proposals lends greater credibility to these proposals than they may have if they each were presented by the teacher. It also depersonalizes the positions, allowing both teachers and students to focus on the substance of the issues rather than on the controversy itself.

Software programs on the Internet also offer teachers the opportunity to expand and enrich the number and depth of research-based projects they assign students, and to increase the scope and difficulty of problem- or case-based activities they use in their classrooms. Although basic mathematic and communication skills still are considered essential for students to develop, educators are becoming increasingly aware that curricula must place less emphasis on learning specific factual information, and more emphasis on the ability to locate and use information to solve problems and to think critically about issues. The reference databases for Activity 5 allow teachers to involve students in problem-solving and locating and using information while teaching the basic skills students are expected to acquire.

Finally, well-designed instructional software can increase teacher productivity. There is a variety of ways such software can accomplish these goals, such as helping teachers with assessment, record keeping, and classroom planning and management. Instructional software such as the Web site offers teachers the convenience of a full week of instruction that is available online. Instructional software can also give teachers increased credibility in their students' eyes. Many of today's students have been raised in a technology-rich environment and often respond positively to the use of technology-based methods that streamline and enhance communication between teachers and students and, in so doing, increase the efficiency of both.

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