References and Resources
Ethical Issues Related to Research and the Protection of Human Subjects
Emanuel, E. 2004. Ending concerns about undue inducement. Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, 32: 100–105.
Emanuel, E., Wendler, D., and Grady, C. 2000. What makes clinical research ethical? Journal of the American Medical Association, 283: 2701–2711.
Munson, R. 2000. Intervention and Reflection. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Pages 255–257.
The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. 1979. The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved September 17, 2008, from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.html.
The Nuremberg Code. 1949. Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, 2: 181–182. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.ushmm.org/information/exhibitions/online-features/special-focus/doctors-trial/nuremberg-code .
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008. Office for Human Research Protections Web site. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/.
World Medical Association. 1964; rev. 1975, 1983, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2002. 2004. Declaration of Helsinki. Retrieved February 16, 2009, from http://www.wma.net/e/policy/b3.htm.
Keiger, D., and De Pasquale, S. 2002. Trials and tribulations. Johns Hopkins Magazine, 54. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/0202web/trials.html .
Kolata, G. 2001. Johns Hopkins death brings halt to U.S.-financed human studies. New York Times, July 20.
PBS Online News Hour. Research Halt. 2001. Retrieved September 18, 2008, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/health/july-dec01/hopkins_7-20.html .
Savulescu, J., and Spriggs, M. 2002. The hexamethonium asthma study and the death of a normal volunteer in research. Journal of Medical Ethics, 28: 3–4.
Steinbrook, R. 2002. Protecting research subjects—the Crisis at Johns Hopkins. New England Journal of Medicine, 346: 715–720.
Emanuel, E.J., Grady, C., Crouch, R.A., Lie, R., Miller, F., and Wendler, D. 2008. Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics. New York: Oxford University Press USA.
Krugman, S. 1986. The Willowbrook hepatitis study revisited: Ethical aspects. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 8: 157–162.
Munson, R. 2000. Intervention and Reflection. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Pages 469–515.
Rothman, D., and Rothman, S. 1984. The Willowbrook Wars. Cambridge: Harper and Row. Pages 265–266.