National Cancer Institute Home
skip navigation Main

Getting Started

Teacher's Guide About NIH and NCI
glossary | map |  contact 
Teacher's Guide hand using a mouse


Allison, A.C. 1954. Protection afforded by sickle cell trait against sub-tertian malarial infection. British Medical Journal, 1: 290.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2001. Atlas of Science Literacy. Washington, DC: AAAS Press.

Baum, D.A., Smith, S.D., and Donovan, S.S. 2005. The tree-thinking challenge. Science, 310(5750): 979980.

Ben, J., Wang Jabs, E., and Chong, S.S. 2005. Genomic, cDNA and embryonic expression analysis of zebrafish IRF6, the gene mutated in the human oral clefting disorders Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes. Gene Expression Patterns, 5: 629638.

Bergstrom, C., and Feldgarden, M. 2008. Chemotherapy and the evolution of drug resistance. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 125137). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Bersaglieri, T., Sabeti, P.C., Patterson, N., Vanderploeg, T., Schaffner, S.F., Drake, M., et al. 2004. Genetic signatures of strong recent positive selection at the lactase gene. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(6): 11111120.

Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. 2005. The Nature of Science and the Study of Biological Evolution. Washington, DC: NSTA Press.

Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., and Cocking, R.R. 2000. How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Bray Speth, E., Long, T.M., Pennock, R.T., and Ebert-May, D. 2009. Using Avida-ED for teaching and learning about evolution in undergraduate introductory biology courses. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 2: 415428.

Brody, T., Yavatkar, A.S., Lin, Y., Ross, J., Kuzin, A., Kundu, M., et al. 2008. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria. PLoS ONE, 3(8): e3074. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003074.

Burger, J., Kirchner, M., Bramanti, B., Haak, W., and Thomas, M. 2007. Absence of the lactase-persistence associated allele in early Neolithic Europeans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 104: 37363741.

Bush, R. 2001. Predicting adaptive evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics, 2: 387392.

Carroll, S.B. 2006. The Making of the Fittest. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.

Carson, P. E., Flannigan, C.L., Ickes, C.E., and Alving, A.D. 1956. Enzymatic deficiency in primaquine-sensitive erythrocytes. Science, 124: 484485.

Catley, K.M., and Novick, L.R. 2009. Digging deep: Exploring college students’ knowledge of macroevolutionary time. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 46(3): 311332.

Corrigan, P., Watson, A., Otey, E., Westbrook, A., Gardner, A., Lamb, T., et al. 2007. How do children stigmatize people with mental illness? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(7): 14051417.

Coyne, J.A., Barton, N.H., and Turelli, M. 1997. Perspective: A critique of Sewall Wright’s shifting balance theory of evolution. Evolution, 51(3): 643671.

Crews, D.E., and Gerber, L.M. 2008. Genes, geographic ancestry, and disease susceptibility: Applications of evolutionary medicine to clinical settings. In W.R. Trevathan, E.O. Smith, and J.J. McKenna (Eds.), Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives (pp. 368381). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Crow, L. 2004. Lamarck is sitting in the front row. Journal of College Science Teaching, 34(1): 6465.

Darwin, C.R. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London, England: J. Murray.

Dobzhansky, T. 1973. Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. The American Biology Teacher, 35: 125129.

Dominguez, T.J. 2004. It’s not a spider bite, it’s community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 17: 220226.

Dronamraju, K.R., and Arese, P. (Eds.). 2006. Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects. New York, NY: Springer.

Ebert, D., and Bull, J.J. 2008. The evolution and expression of virulence. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp.153168). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Enattah, N.S., Jensen, T.G., Nielsen, M., Lewinski, R., Kuokkanen, M., Rasinpera, H., et al. 2008. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82: 5772.

Enattah, N.S., Trudeau, A., Pimenoff, V., Maiuri, L., Auricchio, S., Greco, L., et al. 2007. Evidence of still-ongoing convergence evolution of the lactase persistence T-13910 alleles in humans. American Journal of Human Genetics, 81(3): 615625.

Ewald, P. 2008. An evolutionary perspective on the causes of chronic diseases: Atherosclerosis as an illustration. In W.R. Trevathan, E.O. Smith, and J.J. McKenna (Eds.), Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives (pp. 350367). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Fisher, R.A. 1930. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, 2nd ed. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Fowkes, F.J.I., Allen, S.J., Allen, A., Alpers, M.P., Weatherall, D.J., and Day, K.P. 2008. Increased microerythrocyte count in homozygous α+-thalassaemia contributes to protection against severe malarial anaemia. PLoS Medicine, 5(3): e56. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0050056.

Friberg, L., Hammar, N., Ringh, M., Pettersson, H., and Rosenqvist, M. 2006. Stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation: Who gets it and who does not? Report from the Stockholm Cohort-study on atrial fibrillation (SCAF-study). European Heart Journal, 27: 19541964.

Futuyma, D.J. 1998. Evolutionary Biology, 3rd ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

Geier, R., Blumenfeld, P., Marx, R., Krajcik, J., Fishman, B., Soloway, E., et al. 2008. Standardized test outcomes for students engaged in inquiry-based science curriculum in the context of urban reform. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 45(8): 922939.

Gerbault, P., Moret, C., Currat, M., and Sanchez-Mazas, A. 2009. Impact of selection and demography on the diffusion of lactase persistence. PLoS ONE, 4(7): e6369. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006369.

Govindaraju, D.R., and Jorde, L.B. 2008. Medically relevant variation in the human genome. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 31425). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Griffith, J.A., and Brem, S.K. (2004). Teaching evolutionary biology: pressures, stress, and coping. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(8): 791809.

Haldane, J.B.S. 1948. The rate of mutation of human genes. Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Genetics, 35: 267273.

Halder, G. 1997. Development and evolution of the eye: Pax-6 and the compound eye of Drosophila melanogaster. Retrieved fromhttp://sciencemag.org/site/feature/data/pharmacia/1997/halder.xhtml.

Harris, S.R., Feil, E. J., Holden, M.T.G., Quail, M.A., Nickerson, E.K., Chantratita, N., et al. 2010. Evolution of MRSA during hospital transmission and intercontinental spread. Science, 327: 469474.

Hernandez, R.D., Kelley, J.L., Elyashiv E., Melton S. C., Auton A., McVean, G., et al. 2011. Classic selective sweeps were rare in recent human evolution. Science, 331: 920924.

Hickey, D.T., Kindfeld, A.C.H., Horwitz, P., and Christie, M.A. 1999. Advancing educational theory by enhancing practice in a technology supported genetics learning environment. Journal of Education, 181: 2555.

Hillis, D.M. 2004. The Tree of Life and the grand synthesis of biology. In J. Cracraft and M. Donoghue (Eds.), Assembling the Tree of Life (pp. 545547). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Holden, C., and Mace, R. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of lactose digestion in adults. Human Biology, 69: 605628.

Ingram, C.J., Elamin, M.F., Mulcare, C.A., Weale, M.E., Tarekegn, A., Raga, T.O., et al. 2007. A novel polymorphism associated with lactose tolerance in Africa: Multiple causes for lactase persistence? Human Genetics, 120: 779788.

Ingram, C.J., Raga, T.O., Tarekegn, A., Browning, S.L., Elamin, M.F., Bekele, E., et al. 2009. Multiple rare variants as a cause of a common phenotype: Several different lactase persistence associated alleles in a single ethnic group. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 69: 579588.

Itan, Y., Powell, A., Beaumont, M.A., Burger, J., and Thomas, M.G. 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Computational Biology, 5(8): e1000491. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000491.

Kaushansky, K., Lichtman, M., Beutler, E., Kipps, T., Prchal, J., and Selidsohn, U. 2010. William’s Hematology, 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Kazakova, S.V., Hageman, J.C., Matava, M., Srinivasan, A., Phelan, L., Garfinkel, B., et al. 2005. A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players. New England Journal of Medicine, 352: 468475.

Kidd, K.K., and Kidd, J.R. 2008. Human genetic variation of medical significance. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 5162). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Kittles, R.A., and Weiss, K.M. 2003. Race, ancestry, and genes: Implications for defining disease risk. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 4: 3367.

Kondo, S. Schutte, B.C., Richardson, R.J., Bjork, B.C., Knight, A.S., Watanabe1, Y., et al. 2002. Mutations in IRF6 cause Van der Woude and popliteal pterygium syndromes. Nature Genetics, 32: 285289.

Ksiazek, T.G., Erdman, D., Goldsmith, C.S., Zaki, S.R., Peret, T., and Emery, S. 2003. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 348: 19531966.

Kwiatkowski, D.P. 2005. How malaria has affected the human genome and what human genetics can teach us about malaria. American Journal of Human Genetics, 77(2): 171192.

Leonard, W.R. 2008. Lifestyle, diet, and disease: Comparative perspectives on the determinants of chronic health risks. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 265276). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Li, W., Shi, Z., Yu, M., Ren, W., Smith, C., Epstein, J.H., et al. 2005. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science, 310: 676679.

Libarkin, J.C., Anderson, S.W., Science, J.D., Beilfuss, M., and Boone, W. 2005. Qualitative analysis of college students’ ideas about the Earth: Interviews and open-ended questionnaires. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53(1): 1726.

Lipsitch, M., and O’Hagan, J.J. 2007. Patterns of antigenic diversity and the mechanisms that maintain them. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 4(16): 787802. doi:10.1098/rsif.2007.

Liu, R., and Ochman, H. 2007. Stepwise formation of the bacterial flagellar system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 104: 71167121.

Loucks-Horsley, S., Hewson, P.W., Love, N., and Stiles, K.E. 1998. Designing Professional Development for Teachers of Science and Mathematics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Lynch, M. 2007. The Origins of Genome Architecture. Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates.

Lynch, S., Kuipers, J., Pyke, C., and Szesze, M. 2005. Examining the effects of a highly rated science curriculum unit on diverse students: Results from a planning grant. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42: 921946.

Meir, E., Perry, J., Herron, J.C., and Kingsolver, J. 2007. College students’ misconceptions about evolutionary trees. The American Biology Teacher, 69(7): e71e76.

Minner, D.D., Levy, A.J., and Century, J. 2009. Inquiry-based science instruction—what is it and does it matter? Results from a research synthesis years 1984 to 2002. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4): 474496.

Muehlenbein, M.P., and Bribiescas, R.G. 2005. Testosterone-mediated immune functions and male life histories. American Journal of Human Biology, 17: 527558.

Narod, S.A., and Offit, K. 2005. Prevention and management of hereditary breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(8): 16561663.

National Academy of Sciences and Institute of Medicine. 2008. Science, Evolution, and Creationism. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Institutes of Health and Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. 2003. Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Biological Rhythms. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series. Colorado Springs: BSCS. Available from http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/sleep.

National Institutes of Health and Biological Sciences Curriculum Study. 2005. The Science of Mental Illness. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Available from http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/mental.

National Institutes of Health. 2010, February. Consensus Development Conference Statement (Draft). NIH Consensus Development Conference: Lactose Intolerance and Health, Bethesda, MD.

National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Nesse, R.M. 2008. The importance of evolution for medicine. In W.R. Trevathan, E.O. Smith, and J.J. McKenna (Eds.), Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives (pp. 416434). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Nesse, R.M., and Stearns, S.C. 2008. The great opportunity: Evolutionary applications to medicine and public health. Evolutionary Applications, 1(1): 2848.

Nesse, R.M., and Williams, G.C. 1994. Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine. New York, NY: Times Books.

Nishikimi, M., Fukuyama, R., Minoshima, S., Shimizu, N., and Yagi, K. 1994. Cloning and chromosomal mapping of the human nonfunctional gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in man. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 269: 1368513688.

Novick, L.R., and Catley, K.M. 2007. Understanding phylogenies in biology: The influence of a gestalt perceptual principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13: 197223.

Olasoji, H.O., Ukiri, O.E., and Yahaya, A. 2005. Incidence and aetiology of oral clefts: A review. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 34: 17.

Pauling, L., Itano, H.A., Singer, S.J., and Wells, I.C. 1949. Sickle cell anemia a molecular disease. Science, 110: 543548.

Peiris, J.S.M., Lai, S.T., Poon, L.L.M., Guan, Y., Yam, L.Y., and Lim, W. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet, 361: 13191325.

Prasad, A.B. Allard, M.W., NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, and Green, E.D. 2008. Confirming the phylogeny of mammals by use of large comparative sequence data sets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 25: 17951808.

Provine, W.B. 1986. Sewall Wright and Evolutionary Biology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ramachandran, S., Deshpande, O., Roseman, C.C., Rosenberg, N.A., Feldman, M.W., and Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. 2005. Support from the relationship of genetic and geographic distance in human populations for a serial founder effect originating in Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 102: 1594215947.

Rambaut, A., Posasa, D., Crandall, K.A., and Holmes, E.C. 2004. The causes and consequences of HIV evolution. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5: 5261.

Ruwende, C., Khoo, S.C., Snow, R.W., Yates, S.N.R., Kwiatkowski, D., Gupta, S., et al. 1995. Natural selection of hemi- and heterozygotes for G6PD deficiency in Africa by resistance to severe malaria. Nature, 376: 246249.

Sabeti, P.C., Reich, D.E., Higgins, J.M., Levine, H.Z.P., Richter, D.J., Schaffner, S.F., et al. 2002. Detecting recent positive selection in the human genome from haplotype structure. Nature, 419: 832837.

Sabeti, P.C., Schaffner, S.F., Fry, B., Lohmueller, J., Varilly, P., Shamovsky, O., et al. 2006. Positive natural selection in the human lineage. Science, 312(5780): 16141620.

Saunders, M.A., Slatkin, M., Garner, C., Hammer, M.F., and Nachman, M.W. 2005. The extent of linkage disequilibrium caused by selection on G6PD in humans. Genetics, 171: 12191229.

Sharp, P.M., Bailes, E., Chaudhuri, R.R., Rodenburg, C.M., Santiago, M.O., and Hahn, B.H. 2001. The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: Where and when. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London: Vol. 356(1410). Series B: Biological Sciences (pp. 867876).

Simoons, F.J. 2001. Persistence of lactase activity among Northern Europeans: A weighing of evidence for the calcium absorption hypothesis. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 40(5): 397469.

Sinatra, G.M., Brem, S.K., and Evans, E.M. 2008. Changing minds? Implications of conceptual change for teaching and learning about biological evolution. Evolution: Education and Outreach, 1(2): 189195.

Smith, D.J., Lapedes, A.S., de Jong, J.C., Bestebroer, T.M., Rimmelzwaan, G.F., Osterhaus, A.D. and Fouchier, R.A. 2004. Mapping the antigenic and genetic evolution of influenza virus. Science, 305: 371376.

Soo-Jin Lee, S., Mountain, J., Koenig, B., Altman, R., Brown, M., Camarillo, A., et al. 2008. The ethics of characterizing difference: Guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics. Genome Biology, 9(7): 404.

Swallow, D.M. 2003. Genetics of lactase persistence and lactose intolerance. Annual Review of Genetics, 37: 197219.

Taubenberger, J.K., Reid, A.H., Lourens, R.M., Wang, R, Jin, G, and Fanning, T.G. 2005. Characterization of the 1918 influenza virus polymerase genes. Nature, 437: 889893.

Tishkoff, S.A., Reed, F.A., Ranciaro, A., Voight, B.F., Babbitt, C.C., Silverman, J.S., et al. 2007. Convergent adaptation of human lactase persistence in Africa and Europe. Nature Genetics, 39: 3140.

Tishkoff, S.A., Varkonyi, R., Cahinhinan, N., Abbes, S., Argyropoulos, G., Destro-Bisol, G., et al. 2001. Haplotype diversity and linkage disequilibrium at human G6PD: Recent origin of alleles that confer malarial resistance. Science, 293(5529): 455462.

Trend, R.D. 2001. Deep time framework: A preliminary study of U.K. primary teachers’ conceptions of geological time and perceptions of geoscience. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(2): 191221.

Washington, N.L., Haendel, M.A., Mungall, C.J., Ashburner, M., Westerfield, M., et al. 2009. Linking human diseases to animal models using ontology-based phenotype annotation. PLoS Biology 7: e1000247. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000247.

Watson, A.C., Otey, E., Westbrook, A.L., Gardner, A.L., Lamb, T.A., Corrigan, P.W., et al. 2004. Changing middle schoolers’ attitudes about mental illness through education. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3): 563572.

Weatherall, D. 2004. The thalassemias: the role of molecular genetics in an evolving global health problem. American Journal of Human Genetics, 74: 385392.

Weiss, I.R., Pasley, J.D., Smith, P.S., Banilower, E.R., and Heck, D.J. 2003. Looking Inside the Classroom: A Study of K12 Mathematics and Science Education in the U.S. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research.

Williams, T.N., Wambua, S., Uyoga, S., Macharia, A., Mwacharo, J.K., Newton, C.R.J.C., et al. 2005. Both heterozygous and homozygous α+ thalassemias protect against severe and fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria on the coast of Kenya. Blood, 106(1): 368371.

Wilson, C.D., Taylor, J.A., Kowalski, S.M., and Carlson, J. 2010. The relative effects and equity of inquiry-based and commonplace science teaching on students’ knowledge, reasoning, and argumentation. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(3), 276301.

Woolhouse, M., and Antia, R. 2008. Emergence of new infectious diseases. In S.C. Stearns and J.C. Koella (Eds.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 215228). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Wright, S. 1931. Evolution in Mendelian populations. Genetics, 16: 97159.

*PDF files require Adobe Acrobat